The Singer Solution to World Poverty
See also one of my favorite papers, if there can be such a thing: Famine, Affluence, and Morality
Singer's Simple Syllogism (from The Life You Can Save)
1. Suffering and death from lack of food, shelter, and medical care are bad
2. If it is in our power to prevent something bad from happening, without sacrificing anything nearly as important, we ought, morally, to do it.
3. By donating to aid agencies, you can prevent suffering and death from lack of food, shelter, and medical care, without sacrificing anything nearly as important
4. Therefore, if you do not donate to aid agencies, you are doing something wrong.
Perhaps I will post on this argument, perhaps not, it seems completely sound; so I really don't see much to comment on.
Check out Give Well for evaluations of charities: http://www.givewell.org/